Wednesday, March 16, 2016
CULTIVATION OF ONION-TEXT
Cultivation of Onion
The onion is one of the most important commercial vegetable crops grown in India: The demand for onion is worldwide. It is used both in raw and mature bulb stage as vegetable and spices.
The bulb of onion consists of swollen bases of green foliage leaves and fleshy scales. Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, A.P., Bihar and Punjab are the important onion producing states.
Soil and its Preparation:
Onion can be grown on various soils. But sandy loam, silly loam and deep friable soils are best suited for onion crop. The land is prepared by giving 5-6 ploughings.
Seed rate & Time of Sowing:
In onion 10 to 12 kg seeds require/ha. For kharif it is sown in June & for rabi sown in October-November.
Manures & Fertilizers:
25 to 30 cart loads of well rotten FYM or compost applied at the time soil preparation per hectare.
Harvesting, Curing, Yield and Storage:
Follow harvesting of onion bulbs at right stage of maturity. It is important in deciding storage life of onion as bulbs may be stored for about six months.
The onion bulbs, reach maturity when the plants cease to produce new leaves and roots. In onion, neck fall is the indication of maturity. Time of harvesting depends on several factors tike planting season, cultivar, market price and condition of the crop.
In general, when about 50 percent neck fall is seen crop is harvested. Onion for storage should be fully developed. Thick-neck bulbs which result due to premature harvesting do not store well.
Late harvesting leads to increased respiration, subsequent susceptibility to diseases and excessive sprouting during prolonged storage and left in field sunburn is also noticed. Bulbs are harvested by hand pulling if soil is light; they are also harvested by hand implements.