Saturday, June 6, 2020



Food is the basic need for the all living organism. So, food is essential for all living organisms. Food gives us energy to do work, growth and development of the body, and also to maintain good health by the functions of the body organs. To make our food tasty, we use different ingredients for different varieties of food we eat.

Food comprises of ingredients. An ingredient is a part of mixture that is added to prepare a dish. Ingredients can be obtained from plant sources and animal sources. 

Sources of Food 
The main sources of our food are Plants and Animals. Plants are the sources of food ingredients like grains, cereals, vegetables and fruits. Animals are the another source which provide us with milk, meat products and eggs.

Plant product food:

Plants are a source of a wide variety of nutrients required to keep the human body in perfect working condition. Hence, we obtain food from plants directly or indirectly. 

Plants are also called autotrophs because they prepare their own food by the process of photosynthesis. Plants use sunlight Co2, water and chlorophyll for the process of photosynthesis.

Humans consume Almost all parts of the plants such as leaves, stems, roots, fruits, and seeds are considered to be edible parts. 

Roots: We eat plant roots in the form of carrot, turnip, radish and beetroot. 

Stem: We eat stems of some plants such as sugarcane sweet potato. We also eat underground stem in the form of ginger.

Leaves: Many green leaves are the sources of calcium. Leaves of plants like spinach, lettuce, cabbage, coriander, mint are used as leafy vegetables. 

Flowers of certain plants like cauliflower, banana flower, pumpkin flower and broccoli are used as vegetables. 

Fruits: We get edible fruits from many plants. Fruits are rich in minerals and vitamins. Ex: Mango, Guava, Orange, Apple, Pear, Grapes, Banana. 

Seeds: Seeds which are edible can be used as grains, pulses and oil seeds. Oil seeds include groundnut, sesame, mustard, coconut, sunflower seed etc.

Cereals:- They is most important sources of food for man and animals. They are rich sources of carbohydrates. Eg: Wheat, rice, and maize. 
Pulses:- They are a rich source of protein and are obtained from seeds of leguminous plants. Common plant pea, bean, soybeans, and gram. 

Vegetables:- They are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, and roughage. Some of them are brinjal, tomato, lady's finger, beans, bottle guard, snake gourd, bitter guard etc. are also used in our regular diet.  

Tea and Coffee:-They is common beverages. Tea is obtained from leaves, while coffee is obtained from seeds. 

Spices:- They have no food value and are used for adding flavour to food. The major spices are a pepper, cardamom, ginger, turmeric. Other spices are cloves, saffron, fennel, cumin, coriander & black pepper. 

Sprouts: Sprouted seeds or sprouts of moong (black gram) pea, chick pea (Bengal gram) are very nutritious. Sprouts can be eaten raw as salads or cooked. 

Animal food products 
Animal food products are the different types of food that we get from animals. Animals provide us with different products like milk, eggs, poultry, meat, honey etc. Animals obtain their food from plants or other animals.

Milk: Milk is obtained from animals such as Cows, buffaloes, sheep, goat, and camels etc. Milk is also called as an ideal food. Milk is very nutritious and rich source of vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. It also contains calcium for healthy bones. Many milk products known dairy products are made from milk. 

Eggs: Eggs are rich source of protein and vitamin. We get eggs from birds like hen, duck, geese, and quails etc. It also contains vitamins, phosphorus, calcium and iron. 

Meat: Flesh of animals is called as meat. We get Meat from animals such as goat, chicken, seep and goat etc. Meat is rich in proteins, vitamins, zinc, phosphorus and iron.

Sea food: Fish, prawns, crabs also provide us their meat as food. 
Fish: fish is a major source food rich in animal protein. Fish proteins have highly digestibility and growth promoting value. And shark liver oil is rich in vitamin-D. 

Honey: Honey is the sweat liquid made by bees from the nectar of flowers. Honey is often eaten with bread. It also has medicinal value.

Dairy products: The products which can be made from milk are called as dairy products. Some common dairy products which we use in our daily life are paneer, cheese, cream, butter, curd, ghee etc. 

Some common dairy products are:
Paneer: paneer is called as cottage cheese.
Butter: butter is made by churning fresh cream. It is commonly eaten with bread.
Cheese: cheese is made from curdled milk of goat, sheep or buffalo.
Ghee: It is made by gentle heating of butter and removing solid matter.
Food comprises of essential nutrients namely, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals. Carbohydrates and fats are called as energy providing food. Proteins are called as body-building food.
Vitamins and minerals are called as protective food. In addition, food also contains dietary fibres and waters to maintain life processes.

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