Saturday, March 5, 2016


Children - Has this ever happened to you:
You were eating in the playground, an eagle flew down and took away your roti. As you walked softly past a sleeping dog, its ears shot up at once.
You dropped something sweet on the ground and within minutes many ants collected around it.
Why does it happen:
Animals also have different senses. They can see, hear, taste, smell and feel. Some animals can see their prey from far away. Some can hear even the faintest sound. 
Some animals can find their friends by their smell. The animal world is full of examples of amazing senses!
The sense organs are eyes, ears, tongue, skin, and nose. There are five senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch.
How did the ant recognise a friend:
An ant was going along on the ground. It saw a group of ants coming from the other side. The first ant quickly came back to its hole. The ant guarding the hole recognised it and let it in.
Many years ago a scientist did many experiments like this. He found out that as the ants move, they leave a smell on the ground. The other ants follow the smell to find the way.
Now can you guess why the ants behaved like that when you blocked their path? Some male insects can recognise their females by their smell.
Have you ever been troubled by mosquitoes. Just think, how do they know where you are? Mosquitoes can find you by the smell of your
body. They also find you by the smell of the sole of your feet and the heat of your body.
I am a silk worm. I can find my female worm from many kilometres away by her smell.
Dogs mark out their own area on the road. They can make out if another
dog has come into their area by the smell of its urine or potty (latrine).
Why so:Today Rajni had to go out for some  important work. She had to leave her sixmonth old son Deepak with her sister Sushila. Sushila also has a baby of the same age. 
It was funny that both the babies did potty at the same time. She happily cleaned her daughter but when she was cleaning her sister’s son Deepak, she covered her nose with her dupatta (scarf).
Most of the birds have their eyes on either side of the head.Their eyes can focus on two different things at a time. When they look straight ahead, both their eyes focus on the same object. 
You must have seen birds moving their neck very often. Do you know why? In most of the birds, eyes are fixed and cannot move. So birds have to turn their heads to see around.
Some birds like kites, eagles, vultures can see four times as far as we can. These birds can see things from a distance of eight metres what we can see from a distance of two metres._ Now can you guess from what distance can an eagle in the sky can see a roti on the ground?
Do animals see colours:
Animals cannot see as many colours as we can. See how things in these pictures will be seen by some animals. 
It is believed that animals that are awake in the daytime can see some colours. Those animals that are awake at night can see things only in black and white colours.
Sharp ear:
In Class IV, you read that we cannot easily see birds’ ears. Their ears
are small holes covered with feathers.
Sounds send messages:
High up on a tree, a langur warns others of dangers like a tiger or leopard. The langur does this by making a special warning call. 
Birds also give alarm calls to warn about the danger. Some birds even have different sounds for different kinds of dangers.

For example, there is a different warning call if the enemy is coming from the sky or if the enemy is on the ground. When any animal gives the warning call, all the animals in that area understand the danger signal.
Some animals start behaving in a different way when an earthquake or storm is about to come. People who live in forests and can observe such behaviour of animals come to know of the danger.
In December 2004, few tribes that live in the forests of the Andaman Islands noticed the animals behaving in a different manner. They guessed some danger. So they moved away to a safer part of the island. Soon after, the islands were hit by the tsunami but these people were saved.
Dolphins also make different sounds to give messages to each other. Scientists believe that many animals have a special language of their own.
Say it with sounds:
Just like birds and dolphins you can also make your own language of sounds for giving messages. Remember you have to talk to your friends with only sounds and no words. How and when will you need to give an alarm call? For example, when the teacher is coming to the classroom!
Some animals go into a long, deep sleep in certain seasons. Then they are not seen for many months.
It looks like a bear but is not. It is a sloth. It spends almost 17 hours a day sleeping while hanging upside down on a tree branch. The sloth eats the leaves of the same tree on which it lives.
It hardly needs anything else. When it has eaten enough leaves from that tree, it moves to the nearby tree. Sloths live for about 40 years and in that time they move around only eight trees. Once a week it comes down from the tree to relieve itself.
A tiger can see six times better at night than most of us humans. The tiger’s whiskers are very sensitive and can sense the movements or vibrations in air. 
They help the tiger move in the dark and find its prey. A tiger’s sense of hearing is so sharp that it can make out the difference between the rustling of leaves and the sound of an animal moving on the grass.
The ears of the tiger can move in different directions and this helps to catch the sounds from all around. Tigers make different sounds for different purposes like when it is angry or to call out to a tigress. It can also roar or snarl. It’s roar can be heard upto 3 kilometres away.
Each tiger has its own area which may cover several kilometres. Tigers mark their area with their urine. A tiger can at once come to know if there is another tiger in its area by the smell of the urine. A tiger will avoid going into another tiger’s area.
The number of tigers and many other animals in our country is reducing. There is a danger that some of them will soon disappear. To protect the animals, our government has made some forests as protected areas. 
Some of them are the Jim Corbett National Park in Uttrakhand and ‘Ghana’ in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan. In these areas nobody can hunt animals or destroy the jungle.


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