Wednesday, March 2, 2016



In human beings, a pair of kidneys, a pair of urethras and a urinary bladder represent the excretory system. The nitrogenous end product in man is urea.
Kidney is a bean shaped, red coloured organ. Kidneys are attached to the dorsal body wall, on either side of vertebral column in the abdominal cavity. Its outer margin is convex and inner margin in concave.

The notch present on the inner margin is called hilus. Renal artery, which brings blood to the kidney from heart, enters the kidney through hilus.

 Renal vein, which carries blood from the kidney to the heart, and ureter come out of the kidney through hilus. Each ureter is a thin walled tube. The anterior end of ureter  is wide and called pelvis.

The ureters open into the urinary bladder. Urine is stored in the bladder till it is filled and then is sent out through a canal called urethra. On the top of each kidney, an adrenal gland is present. It is an endocrine gland and has nothing to do with excretion.

To understand the structure of the kidney, we will study the longitudinal section of the kidney. Outer region  of kidney is deep red in colour and is called as cortex. The inner region is light red in colour and is called as medulla.

In the medulla are 9-12 inverted pyramid like structures with their broad base towards the cortex and narrow end towards the pelvis. These extend into pelvis.

The broad end of each pyramid is branched and gives the appears of sepals of a flower. Hence, these are called calyces. Through calyces, urine reaches funnel like ducts and from there into pelvis. From pelvis urine enters ureters.
The structural units of kidney are long tubules called nephrons. These are responsible for urine formation. In human kidney, there are about 2 lakhs of nephrons.

Each nephron has two portions – a cup like structure called bowman’s capsule and a tubular portion. Bowman’s capsule is a two layered cup with space in between the two layers.

Inside the cup of the Bowman’s capsule, there is a network of large number of capillaries which is called as glomerulus. After entering the kidney, the  renal artery divides into a number of arterioles in the kidney.

Each renal arterioles enters a Bowman’s capsule as afferent arteriole, forms a capillary network inside the cup like structure and leaves the Bowman’s capsule as efferent arteriole.

The tubular part of nephron has three parts – proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle and distal convoluted tubule. The distal convoluted tubules of nephrons open intocollecting tubues.

Urine is formed in the Bowman’s capsule. The capillaries in the glomerulus have small microscopic pores in their walls. When the blood flows through the capillaries in the glomerulus, it gets filtered through the pores in the walls of the capillaries. Blood pressure provides the required pressure for this filtration.

All the water soluble, small molecular weight substances such as salts, glucose, amino acids along with nitrogenous wastes are filtered from blood. Blood cells and proteins are not filtered through the pores present in the capillary walls. This filtration is called ultrafiltration.

Approximately 120 ml of urine is formed in the kidney per minute. In 24 hours, about 175 liters of urine is formed. However, all this is not excreted – only one to two liters  of urine is excreted and the rest of it is reabsorbed into the body.
The reabsorption of the urine produced by Bowman’s capsule takes place in the tubular portion. When the filtrate reaches the proximal convoluted tubule, the epithelial cells of the tubule reabsorb several substances in a selective manner and transport them back to blood.

Reabsorption of water and salts also occurs in the loop of henle and in distal convoluted tubule. Water, salts and other substances reabsorbed by the tubule are transported into the blood.

Unabsorbed substances along with water enter the collecting duct which discharges urine into pelvis and then into ureter. Urine is produced continuously and is concentrated continuously.

This reaches Smooth muscles (involuntary muscles) in the wall of ureter produce peristaltic movements which prople urine into the urinary bladder. 
The urinary bladder is a muscular sac and opens to the outside through urethra.At the Junction of bladder and urethra is a sphincter. Urination is a reflex action. 
But in elders, it is voluntary. In children, urination is an involuntary action. Normally, when about 200 to 300 ml of urine reaches the bladder, the muscles in its wall contract and relax expelling urine.

In the previous chapter you have learnt that a mumber of wastes are produced in the body which are carried by the blood to the kidneys. In the kidneys, these wastes are separated from the blood and excreted as urine. In certain disease conditions, the nephrons in the kidney die.

n such persons, blood is not filtered and urine is not produced. As a result, waste products accumulate in the blood and they become toxic to the body. Such people may loose consciousness or may even die.

Doctors treat such patients by artificially removing the waste material from the blood. The separation of wastes from blood by artificial method is called dialysis. Dialysis machine is used for this purpose. 
Blood from the artery is sent into the dialysis machine where it is filtered and the filtered blood is sent into the body through a vein. Persons whose kidneys do not function, have to undergo dialysis once in three or four days throughout their life or get a new kidney transplanted.




What do spices give us?
Spices, like everything else, are made of chemicals. Spices give us health, colour and fragrance and most of all they keep life from getting monotonous. Spices hide in them our traditions and culture.

let’s study about some spices which we uses in our daily kitchen.
The Indian state known as the Spice Garden is Kerala. Kerala is a small state full of hills and hillocks with stunning green sceneries. 
There are many spices growing naturally in abundance in the state.



Curry leaves

Its leaves are used in many dishes in India and neighboring countries. 

It is used as a main ingredient for seasoning in some countries. It has many medicinal uses. 
These leaves are beneficial for reducing blood sugar. Each part of the plant provides some benefit or the other. The dried leaves are extensively used in herbal medicines.



Coriander- Dhaniya

Coriandum sativum or coriander, also known as Chinese parsley, dhania, or cilantro, is grown extensively in southern Europe, northern Africa, and Asia.

Coriander leaves as well as coriander seeds are used in cooking. It also has some medicinal uses. It can be used externally on aching joints and rheumatism. It is also good for coping with soar throat, allergies, digestion problems, hay fever etc.



Cardamom Elaichi

Elaichi or cardamom is one of the most common spices seen in an Indian household. It is used in most of the Indian and other sweet dishes to give a good flavour and smell.
It is also used widely in pharmaceutical sector. It Helps to control bad breath and digestive disorder. A whole cardamom chewed is good for coping with diabetes.



Star Anise

star anise is the unusual fruit of a small oriental tree. It is, as the name suggests, star shaped, radiating between five and ten pointed boat-shaped sections, about eight on average.
 It is used in cooking and for medicinal purpose

Star anise oil is helpful for digestion and avoiding bad breath.