Sunday, February 28, 2016
The third type of nutrition is called mixotrophic nutrition. In this type of nutrition, there is an association of two different living organisms.
Nutrients may be obtained by both the organisms or only by one organism. In the former condition, both the organisms are benefited while in the latter case only once of the organisms is benefited of the association.
When two organisms live together, exchange nutrients and are benefited mutually. This nutrition is called symbiotic nutrition.
One of the organisms provide nutrients required for the other organism which the other provides shelter or nutrients or both.
Symbiotic mode of nutrition is seen in both plants and animals. Nitrogen fixing bacteria living in the root nodules of leguminous plants is a typical example for symbiotic nutrition.
Plant provides shelter and nutrients to the bacteria while bacteria provide nitrogenous compounds to the plant.
Similarly, symbiotic association is seen in lichens where algae supplies food to fungi, fungi provides protection to algae and live together.
In animal kingdom, the association of certain crabs with sea anemones is an example of symbiotic nutrition.
Sea anemones give protection to the animal while the small pieces of food particles are provided to sea anemones by the crab.
Parasitism is the second type of mixotrophic nutrition – parasite is an organism which lives inside (called endoparasite) or outside (called ectoparasite) of another organism (called host ) and obtain the nutrients form the host organism.
In this mode of nutrition, only parasite is benefited. Body functions of the host are usually affected badly due to the invasion of the parasite and the host may even die.
Heterotrophs cannot synthesise their own nutrients. They depend on other sources for the supply of nutrients including those required for energy production. Most of the bacteria, all fungi and all animals are heterotrophs.
You might have seen packets of mushrooms sold in the vegetable
market. You may have also seen fluffy umbrella-like patches growing on rotting wood during the rainy season. Let us find out what type of nutrients they need to survive and from where they get them.
These organisms are called fungi.They have a different mode of nutrition. They secrete digestive juices on the dead and decaying matter and convert it into a solution. Then they absorb the nutrients from it.
This mode of nutrition in which organisms take in nutrients in solution form from dead and decaying matter is called saprotrophic nutrition.
The fungal spores are generally present in the air. When they land on wet and warm things they germinate and grow. Now, can you figure out how we can protect our things from getting spoiled?
Some organisms live together and share shelter and nutrients. This is called symbiotic relationship. For example, certain fungi live in the roots of trees. The tree provides nutrients to the fungus and, in return, receives help from it to take up water and nutrients from the soil. This association is very important for the tree.
Some of the bacteria and of fungi depend on other
dead organisms to obtain nutrients. Those which live on other organisms, decompose and degrade the complex molecules present in these organisms to simple molecules.
Bacteria and fungi absorb these molecules through their body surface. These are called saprophytes. In this process, they add several valuable nutrients to the medium in which they live(water or soil).
HERBIVORES, CARNIVORES AND
OMNIVORES: All the animals are heterotrophic in their nutrition. They cannot synthesise their own food material. Hence, they consume other organisms such as plants, animals and microorganisms.
Size and nature of food consumed is different in
They may consume either small microscopic or large plants or animals or both. Animals consuming plants as food are called herbivores. Those consuming other animals are called carnivores. Those which consume both animals and plants are called omnivores. Interestingly, some plants are also carnivorous especially insectivorous (feed on insects). They supplement their autotrophic nutrition by obtaining nitrogen rich nutrients from the insects.
Nepenthes, Dionea (Venus fly trap), Drosera (sun dew plant) and Utricularia ( bladder wort) are some of the examples for this type of plants. All these plants are autotrophic and can live by themselves without feeding on insects. However, their growth is stimulated when they feed on insects.
Friday, February 26, 2016
Organisms which exhibit autotrophic nutrition are
called Autotrophs. These organisms are able to synthesise their nutrients from simple inorganic compounds.
However, they require energy for this purpose. Depending on how they obtain the energy for converting carbon dioxide to organic compounds, there are two types of autotrophs – photoautotroph and chemoautotroph.
Several bacteria(such as green bacteria, purple bacteria and cyanobacterial) can use light as a source of energy and synthesise complex organic molecules.
Similarly, All the algae and higher plants use light as source of energy. These autotrophic organisms are called photoautotrophic organisms
These organisms have special pigments is their body to trap the light energy which drives other reactions.
Such as hydrogen, iron containing compounds, sulphur, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, nitrite, and other nitrogen containingcompounds. However, all these organisms require carbon dioxide as a source of carbon atoms.